DIGITAL AMERICA

Author Archives: Lois

What a Conundrum!

// Posted by Lois on 06/11/2015 (9:23 PM)

Classmates – sorry my post is coming in a bit late…

Planned obsolescence is a term I was not familiar with until this class. After reading the article Made To Break I was clearly aware of just how much of… Read more

Classmates – sorry my post is coming in a bit late…

Planned obsolescence is a term I was not familiar with until this class. After reading the article Made To Break I was clearly aware of just how much of a conundrum we, the U.S., find ourselves in. The challenge is what to do with waste, and can the volume be reduced? How is the waste we are disposing of today affecting people in the future? So many items become obsolete because they are manufactured for a short shelf life. We read about the electronic devices that we all use and seem to be continuously upgrading to the latest version or model. It made me think…what did I do with my previous cell phone and I remembered that I had donated it. So, I upgraded to a faster, more effective digital product but the one I disposed of was/is being put to good use because it’s being rebuilt for another user – someone who can’t afford to purchase a cell phone but really needs the technology. Thinking of disposal in this regard seems fair and I don’t feel guilty for upgrading to a new device. But, I think the overwhelming majority of devices are disposed of in landfills or just simply sit somewhere until someone decides where it should go. Who is the caretaker of digital waste product???

One example in the reading was General Electric flashlight bulbs. Making an inferior product with a shortened life span increases the demand and turnaround time in between consumer purchases. It’s definitely a financial mess! How many times I’ve blown a bulb immediately after installing it or shortly thereafter only to throw it in the trash not thinking where it is going to end up, and simply purchase more bulbs. I don’t think a lot of thought has been given to this issue over the years but it is surfacing now due to the increased waste Americans generate and the lack of places to properly dispose of the waste. Disposal of waste is a huge part of the discussion around planned obsolescence, but so is money.

Americans are buyers. We spend money. We spend money on lots of things both small and large. Obsolescence of automobiles and computers and cell phones are but a few examples. What happened when Apple announced the iPhone watch? There was a wait list to purchase the watch. It was the newest technological release by Apple and the world was in a hurry to get it! When we make purchases, I don’t think we’re consciously thinking about the lifespan of the item, we’re just happy to have something newer, faster or advertised as “better.” When we upgrade our computers we’re not thinking of the pieces and parts of the computer and the computer screen or what happens to the “old,” we’re focused on the “new.” I think the more attention that is brought to this subject and, the more people are aware of planned obsolescence; the demand for longer lasting, more durable products will increase. Maybe not digital items as the world seems obsessed with increasing our digital capabilities. But items like paper products, lightbulbs, clothing, car parts, etc., could be made better and more durable. But, that would mean less demand from the consumer and less money would be made by the seller which would have a negative effect on the employee whose job isn’t needed any longer due to the decrease in demand. The financial cycle would be effected and trickle down to the average consumer and worker. That’s why I said in the beginning of this blog post that planned obsolescence is a conundrum.

I don’t have an answer to fix the issue…it’s huge and it’s growing. Production of items with a purposely shortened shelf life is not going to decrease because there is money to be made by the manufacturer. As with most things…money talks loudest, unfortunately.

Here is a really spot on video that is a song called “Limited Lives.” I think it showcases planned obsolescence quite well! It’s funny but it definitely sends a profound message to the viewer!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoI1Y4MlRew

 


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Reply to Group C

// Posted by Lois on 06/06/2015 (6:38 PM)

Upfront and initially in thought it does seem expensive to continuously make changes to the internet in order to make it faster and better. But, what is the alternative…remain stagnet? The internet is a tool everyone uses daily to conduct personal and… Read more

Upfront and initially in thought it does seem expensive to continuously make changes to the internet in order to make it faster and better. But, what is the alternative…remain stagnet? The internet is a tool everyone uses daily to conduct personal and business transactions. The U.S. would never sit idle and let other countries continue to progress while remaining OK with the status quo. It would actually be quite dangerous for any country to not continuously improve their communication avenues and streamline the way data is transferred from one person or establishment to another. The Pentagon for example, needs the latest and most sophisticated data and methods for receiving and exporting data. The U.S. military needs the best, fastest and most reliable services the internet can provide to remain ahead of terrorists and continue to protect the country the best they can. I am not worried about the cost for either of these two examples.

Yes, it’s a lot of money out there being spent, but there is also a lot of money being made too. The costs to upgrade and keep improving the status of internet operations is offset tremendously by the return on the investment. Businesses make money from the internet selling services and merchandise. Traditional institutions like a bank, for example, need less staff because fewer and fewer people are physically going in to a banking institution to conduct business. I can’t recall the last time I went inside my bank because I can conduct my financial business online or at an ATM (hope for no skimmers!) Thanks to technological advances we can now talk with family and friends all over the world via our computers or smart phones – I know my grandfather never imagined that! He was of the age of black and white TV and getting his news from the radio. Progress is inevitable. Americans are never satisfied with the status quo and never will be. We have made tremendous advances medically…why stop now? I want technology to continue to be faster and better. I want money to be spent so one day I can see a cure for the terrible disease Parkinson’s that took my Father from me. I want safer cars for us to drive. The list goes on and on. We’ve all heard the saying, “it takes money to make money.” I believe Wall Street traders would echo that statement!

You can’t slow down or stop progress, at least not in a nation like the U.S. If you visit a third world nation you’re going to see that not everyone on this earth has it as good as we do in the U.S. Why are the third world nations suffering? The answer is simple, money. There isn’t money for development for many things, including internet communications and data exchanges. While we may not “like” the idea of spending money on creating a digital America that thrives, I think most of us would suffer if we did not. The small picture includes our modern day conveniences – cars, shopping, purchasing goods, etc. But we must consider the big picture when evaluating our stance on spending money on technology – safety, U.S. intelligence capabilities, preventing terrorism, flight safety, travel safety in general whether it be trains or planes or automobiles.

Concerns about incremental amounts of spending might seem like an issue that we should be concerned about, and I’m not purporting that we should spend money like there is no end to the pot, but as a nation, we must spend money to continue to advance and develop the digital America that is part of our fabric and every day lives.


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Wall Street – Faster or Better?

// Posted by Lois on 06/04/2015 (7:32 PM)

When I read the article Raging Bulls: How Wall Street Got Addicted To Light-Speed Trading I immediately had a mental image of the stock market trading floor. Men and women rushing around multi-tasking-talking on the phone, emailing, talking to colleagues… Read more

When I read the article Raging Bulls: How Wall Street Got Addicted To Light-Speed Trading I immediately had a mental image of the stock market trading floor. Men and women rushing around multi-tasking-talking on the phone, emailing, talking to colleagues and all the while watching the numbers and multiple monitors ever so closely. It’s interesting that the article begins talking about “flash failures” that are occurring with increasing frequency as traders want more and they want more…faster!

Time is of the essence when trading on Wall Street or any other trading floor location. The goal is to make the trade as quickly as possible and to send and receive data at warp speed. But, is the infrastructure that is currently in place sophisticated enough to provide what traders are seeking? Apparently not according to investors who are looking to make lots of money in short periods of time. Will the need for speed increase errors? Or will it turn the ordinary trader in to a superman or wonder woman. People who are forever striving to increase what they and the market technology can produce. I’m reminded of the movie Wall Street with Michael Douglas and the cut throat environment among the employees. Who would make the next sale and for how much?

As we read, “faster and faster turn the wheels of finance, increasing the risk they will spin our of control.” We read that machines can operate faster than humans and “intervene.” What does this mean for the market trader? It means competition and probably hasty decisions with non-profitable end results. If a machine can make investment decisions based on data faster than an individual can make the same decision based on assessment of data and the state of the economy, where does that leave the workforce? Will it one day be obsolete or at the worse, decreased tremendously? If market trends can be analyzed by computers, who needs employees, right? Well, not so fast…servers and fiber optic cables are privy to hacking and failure for technological reasons. Machines can’t replace people in all aspects of market trading. People need to build and install hardware and cables to make the process function. But is it ever fast enough? That’s the question.

Data travels as lightening speed from one machine to another and from one geographic area to another. We read that often data is outdated by the time it arrives to its destination. This “need for speed” is why Wall Street is addicted to high-speed trading. There will always be faster competition coming along to replace existing networks. Companies are developing new and better fiber optic cables to reach from point “a” to point “b.” The field is driven by competition and sales. Manufacturers of cable are constantly needing to upgrade to stay marketable. Algorithms are written by people and they are changing as fast as the market is trading. This cycle of faster and faster – how does it affect the overall economy? Well, first, a higher volume of trading has to take place to make the same amount of money as the technology and data speeds increase. People are working harder and harder for the same return. Trades are executed to the thousandth of a cent to be competitive – not by traders but by computers. Things are happening so quickly on the computers that the average trader can’t keep up.

The company BATS who offered an initial public offering of its stock, closed down other companies because of a glitch in the system just seconds after trading opened. Because of a software glitch, trades were frozen and this affected other companies who operated on the same server.  Perhaps this was a true “glitch” in the system but it also presents opportunity for bad behavior by someone who might not want an IPO to be successful. Like anything else, there is the good and the bad. Stock prices are inevitably going to be affected by new technologies and financial activity. And, greed is going to be present in all areas of the market.

I can’t pretend that I understand how the stock market functions or that I really want to, but I do understand competition and stability. Competition is high in the stock market among traders and stability is low. Low stability, I think is due to the fast moving parts and the desire to move even faster. Will it ever be fast enough? It will be interesting to see how data driven functions will affect the stock market in years to come. If we’re at light-speed trading today, what could it look like tomorrow?!

Watch this clip of Gordon Gekko (Michael Douglas) talking about greed in the market and why it is “good.” From the movie Wall Street…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PF_iorX_MAw

 


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Stuxnet…video

// Posted by Lois on 05/28/2015 (4:40 PM)

I forgot to include this interesting YouTube video on Stuxnet as part of my post!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7g0pi4J8auQ

I forgot to include this interesting YouTube video on Stuxnet as part of my post!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7g0pi4J8auQ


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Stuxnet – The Precision Weapon

// Posted by Lois on 05/28/2015 (4:36 PM)

“Stuxnet wasn’t just aimed at attacking a specific type of Siemens controller, it was a precision weapon bent on sabotaging a specific facility.” This is a direct quote from the article we read this week “How Digital Detectives Deciphered Stuxnet,… Read more

“Stuxnet wasn’t just aimed at attacking a specific type of Siemens controller, it was a precision weapon bent on sabotaging a specific facility.” This is a direct quote from the article we read this week “How Digital Detectives Deciphered Stuxnet, The Most Menacing Malware In History.” Wow! The most menacing malware in history are strong words. But Stuxnet was a sophisticated and difficult to detect malicious malware program. One characteristic (there were many) that surprised the computer security experts was that the malware was not aimed at the U.S. but targeted foreign countries – Iran, Indonesia and India. We read that computer security has grown into a multibillion-dollar industry just due to keeping pace with the hackers, viruses and spyware programs that are constantly being created. Is this an example of negative digital progress? Yes! Along with progress that is good and propels the world forward in computer skills and abilities comes the negative aspect of hackers and those who are set on making money utilizing the very tools that are being developed. It’s a catch 22 – while we aim to steadily increase our digital knowledge to streamline and be more efficient, we are also up against hackers who’s goal is to take down what has been created and make money in the process.

Stuxnet was unique in that it used “zero-days” to spread the malware. Zero days, are the ”hacking world’s  most potent weapons: they exploit vulnerabilities in software that are yet unknown to the software maker or antivirus vendors.” With this method the virus can spread from computer to computer through a contaminated USB. Something as normal as inserting a flash drive was the catalyst for Stuxnet. The shear sophistication of this malware was a puzzle to be solved by computer experts. What was it, how did it come to be and how to fix it? All critical questions for computer experts. The term zero days is  new to me. It seems that if a computer virus can be initiated in vulnerabilities of software that a software maker isn’t even aware of, then how can the software maker protect their product? It’s definitely a difficult situation. I don’t think it’s going away either. Thought leaders are constantly developing new and improved hardware and software and criminals are constantly developing malicious viruses to hack in to computers and do damage or steal information.

I’ve had malware on my work office computer and my work laptop. It was a nightmare to fix! Hours of clean up time were spent to repair the damage. And, now we see the same thing happening with our tablets, iPads, and cell phones. After all, what is a cell phone but a small computer. How can we be careful that our personal information is not stolen and that our digital devices remain safe? As a consumer I trust the antiviral software that I use will protect me but I truly think you’re just lucky if you don’t experience a virus at some time with some piece of your digital world.

It’s scary to think that a company like Siemans can be targeted so specifically. Think of the money the company spends to detect the virus and fix the problem. I think most every business is vulnerable to such an attack. When I work from home I log in via a VPN (virtual private network) and I feel secure working from home, but am I? I often use my remote desktop connection and it’s as if I’m sitting in my office working and I feel protected by the Sophos software the University uses. I think it’s a false sense of security but I’ve got to trust it anyway. It seems like with big brother watching our every move and invasions of our private information and digital devices, one has to be so careful what one shares on the Internet or via digital communication. I would not share anything that I would not want exposed because you don’t know who is looking!

In reading about Stuxnet I imagined that there are many malware viruses created by our government for spying on other countries or for use in the military for the purpose of trying to prevent terrorism in the U.S. If this is actually true, I guess I don’t have a problem with what our government might be doing to “protect” us. But, on the other hand, how much data does our government have the right to have on us? It’s not an easy question to answer.


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Edward Snowden and Mass Surveillance

// Posted by Lois on 05/26/2015 (10:05 PM)

Edward Snowden left a life of comfort seemingly due to his strong beliefs and opinions about government mass surveillance. Working for the NSA he was privy to confidential information and documents about the U.S. government and what it knows and… Read more

Edward Snowden left a life of comfort seemingly due to his strong beliefs and opinions about government mass surveillance. Working for the NSA he was privy to confidential information and documents about the U.S. government and what it knows and about whom. From the many readings for this post I’ve come to see him not as a hero or a villain but rather as an intelligent young man with a sound basis and desire to do what he thinks is the right thing for all Americans. Notice I say what “he thinks” is right for us, but not necessarily what all Americans might agree is the right thing to do.

It’s obvious that the complexity of this issue is not easily summarized. There are technological pieces and parts that even Snowden said would be difficult for the average person without the high level training he has had to understand. Simply put, he wants us to know our government is spying on us without due cause. Snowden wants to release and disclose only those documents he feels are pertinent to domestic surveillance, not foreign. This causes me to consider how he distinguishes between right and wrong based on if the U.S. government is spying on domestic soil or foreign? He doesn’t seem to have an issue with foreign surveillance but definitely with domestic surveillance of unknowing citizens. Snowden made it clear in his interview with John Oliver that the average American does not understand just how complex the NSA is. This is a fair statement. I, for one, do not understand the intricacies of the NSA and why should I…if I trust by government. Herein lies the heart of this discussion.

After 9-11 and the Patriot Act was established, I don’t think many Americans were focusing on anything other than our government protecting us from foreign threats. We weren’t thinking of Patriot Act 215 which allows the government to ask businesses to handover any documents to prevent terrorism. After all, that seems reasonable in light of what had just occurred in our country and the number of deaths at the hands of terrorists. What Edward Snowden is focused on is educating the public on the breadth of intrusive, invasive surveillance that is occurring within the government. His mission is to enlighten the public in order to engage a conversation on the legitimacy of NSA actions.

Snowden’s plan seems well thought out and not a knee-jerk reaction to the knowledge he became aware of. He didn’t just one day think to himself…I’ll disclose government secrets to the world, flee the country and continue to keep feeding documents to journalist so the information will continue to be disclosed to the public. He was by all accounts a very smart man. I’m sure at one point, perhaps in the beginning of his recognition that what he was seeing or learning wasn’t what he personally felt big brother should be doing, he must have been scared just thinking about what he was going to do and formulating his plan. The actions he took aren’t one of a non-planning and systematically organized individual. He must have given a lot of thought as to how he would implement his plan to disclose the ills of the NSA.

Snowden tells us that the NSA knows all and that is pretty scary. Seriously, can the NSA store phone records of all Americans? Probably, yes. Can the NSA intercede and impede the fundamental rights of citizens? Snowden says absolutely they can and they do. He purports the information stored on servers is moved around from server to server and implicates Google, Facebook, Yahoo and others in his accusations. If what Snowden says and the documents he has leaked are true, then nothing we do is private because the government can access our online activities at any time. That would include phone calls, text, Skype, computer activity, etc. And it’s not just that Snowden viewed the invasion by the NSA as harmful to Americans, but also to foreign countries where the NSA had no purpose to collect information or monitor online activities.

If you’re looking at this from the point of view of the NSA they are of course going to substantiate any and all actions in the name of preventing terror attacks on the U.S. The last thing they want is a whistleblower like Snowden releasing the “secrets.” Snowden is a man on the run and hiding out from many people who are looking for him. It makes me wonder why if the NSA has the power to “know all” about anyone and anything, they can’t find Snowden…he has managed to evade those looking to bring him back to the U.S. for prosecution. Snowden presents the NSA’s actions as a blow to the fundamental concept of liberty for all Americans. He says the information is being used against us. He urges citizens to learn and understand the system so they have an opportunity to decide what kind of government they want to have. But, he also admits the technology is difficult to understand.

The way Snowden explains PRISM is a system run by the NSA that is used to gain access to private communications of users of the top nine Internet servers. I found myself asking, how does he know all of this information? Why has no one else come forward with him if the NSA’s surveillance is basically spying on citizens. Snowden couldn’t be the only person who knows this information. It’s too wide spread for him to be in this alone. I know he continues to pass information along to journalists so it can be communicated to the public but how did one man become the major whistleblower for such a large government agency as the NSA? I’m sure foreign countries would love to have Snowden’s knowledge. This makes him a marked man. How can he ever return to a normal life? He says he missed his family but his life’s mission is disclosing what the government is doing and the breadth and scope of information our government is collecting about us. I think Snowden is brave but I also think he has crossed a line in which he can never return. He will forever be on the fun from someone who wants his knowledge for good or for bad. He seems determined to stay the path no matter what the personal cost.

This brings up once again the age of digital America and is the Internet a good thing or a bad thing in the long run. What if Snowden had never come forward with any of this information? Would we be concerned about what we put online, text, or say on phone calls? Even now knowing who Snowden is and what he is trying to do (and has done), has it changed the average American’s life? Do we stop using the Internet, shut down our Facebook accounts and stop texting friends. No, we do not. I think at this point the government knows so much and has such a volume of information on everyone that is it almost incomprehensible and unimaginable to try and understand how it all works.

 


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Why Wait To Be Connected?

// Posted by Lois on 05/22/2015 (2:42 PM)

I found this interesting video on internet connection to our phones in Wired magazine. Very cool!

http://brightcove.condenet.com/streams/1564549380/201504/151/1564549380_4194729411001_QULG0072H-EVERYTHINGS-CONNECTED-75-HD-NOSLATE.mp4

I found this interesting video on internet connection to our phones in Wired magazine. Very cool!

http://brightcove.condenet.com/streams/1564549380/201504/151/1564549380_4194729411001_QULG0072H-EVERYTHINGS-CONNECTED-75-HD-NOSLATE.mp4


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Link to Wikipedia – The Well

// Posted by Lois on 05/21/2015 (6:55 PM)

Here is the link to what Wikipedia says about the WELL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_WELL

Here is the link to what Wikipedia says about the WELL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_WELL


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Week 2: Virtuality and Community on the Well

// Posted by Lois on 05/21/2015 (6:39 PM)

This week’s reading is a lesson on the early start of the chat room experience. With The Whole Earth Catalog as a model for “one of the most influential computer networks to date – the Whole Earth Lectronic Link (or… Read more

This week’s reading is a lesson on the early start of the chat room experience. With The Whole Earth Catalog as a model for “one of the most influential computer networks to date – the Whole Earth Lectronic Link (or Well)” as we read, Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant began what would intrinsically link people from different cultures and backgrounds from around the world via communication on a central computer. Initially the WELL was a teleconferencing system where the subscribers dialed in to connect. They were able to type messages to others in what was a ‘real time’ environment. How amazing this must have been! Chatting with another person in real time. Exchanging ideas and thoughts bringing people together in a new and exciting way. We read that many different groups came together and it became a sort of communal environment with wide reaching geographic possibilities.

I envision the WELL as a social medium for the exchange of ideas both on the business level and non-business level. To be able to log in and talk in real time with others was a great technological advance. It was a way of bringing people together from all political and social settings. It was a way to converse with others with different political views or social views and build a sense of community even if there was disagreement. I see this as kin to today’s social media avenues like LinkedIn where you can email and send instant messages to others, Facebook which allows for immediate conversation back and forth and Twitter which is a constant live feed of information (sometimes too much!) The internet provided a method for instant gratification much like it does today. We ask a question and we immediately are provided an answer. I see friends asking questions on Facebook about recommendations for a restaurant and immediately people are responding with suggestions. The WELL was the beginning of much bigger things to come.

In the old style chat rooms (which I remember well), you could be anonymous or you could be yourself. Some chat rooms were private and required an invitation to join while others were open to the public. The chat room was preparing us for even faster and more technologically advanced social media systems like the ones we use today. The internet has always connected people with information but now people were connecting with other people. The WELL much like the chat room had categories of interest for the user to select from. It was almost like shopping online is today. We search for our individual interests. The connection of man with computer was further developed via the WELL and via chat rooms. The two forever linked in mutual benefit. The network has to be functional for the interpersonal communication to evolve and attract users. I can  personally recall being in a chat room with friends or family and the system going down. How frustrating! The link between the people and the machine was then broken. But, in the development of what was to eventually come, this was a first step of minor inconvenience to the user.

I think Turner’s take on the WELL is dynamic in that he examines every possible aspect of the communication cycle and who is communicating and what social norm could be affected. He talks about the public vs. private aspect of the WELL and how the lines could be blurred. As he said in the chapter, making the information available in the network the value of the information increased. I like the example he uses of the Librarian who used the WELL to get to know people better by just hanging out and conversing. I think that’s the overall goal of any chat room or social media site. We enjoy getting to know others and learning what they think about every day issues that we all face.


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Week 1 – Perceptions of the Internet & Rules of Engagement

// Posted by Lois on 05/14/2015 (8:00 PM)

When my group (David, Kendall and Sarah) met to discuss how we view the Internet it was interesting that each of us viewed it as a tool or a “service provider”. We discussed the Internet as a thing such as… Read more

When my group (David, Kendall and Sarah) met to discuss how we view the Internet it was interesting that each of us viewed it as a tool or a “service provider”. We discussed the Internet as a thing such as a bank, source of entertainment, avenue for communication (Skype, email), travel tool, retail outlet, TV, stereo, grocery store, GPS, provider of market research, recruiting tool for employers and employment tool for job seekers…just to name a few. My group did not necessarily view the Internet as a place but a tangible thing.

My perception of the Internet other than what it provides in our day-to-day life is that like anything else it is useful and necessary, but can be a burden and time waster. Many people are hooked on Facebook and spend hours at a time on the Internet reading about what is happening in others’ lives when they could be living their life. I admit, I use Facebook but have scaled way back. I found myself getting hooked on reading about friends and family when I should have been doing other things. So now I check it maybe every other day, keep up with friends and family and I don’t let Facebook monopolize my time. Especially now that we are in summer with longer daylight hours and I can spend time outside enjoying nature.

The Internet will be ever evolving and keeping up with the latest updates is critical for maintaining and increasing work competencies. Those seeking employment must have a high knowledge level of how the Internet works and how most efficiently to extract what you  need to do your job. The Internet is a wealth of information including local and world happenings. It has replaced, for some, watching TV for news, reading a book in hand, listening to a stereo or radio, looking at a map to travel or even research in a library. Most college students utilize the Internet for research perhaps more than spending time in an actual library. The Internet is a valuable tool that enhances our lives by keeping us connected to world events and family/friends. It is necessary for almost any profession and has increased an employer’s demand for higher volumes of work output. The Internet allows for increased production, quicker turn around times and therefore is directly impacting the economy. People shop online to find the best price so competition is increased among vendors and retail merchants. The Internet is more than I could possibly write in this blog! It is a wonderful, smart tool that affects every life in some manner. But, there is still a segment of the population that refuses to operate or own a computer – my Mom is an example. She would not have the first clue what to do on a computer. I think the older generations are OK with things the way they “used to be.” Perhaps this makes them feel more of a sense of control because I’m sure they realize how quickly things are changing.

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Rules of Engagement

I think the rules of engagement for the class should include deadlines for postings so everyone has an opportunity to comment without having to log on late on a Sunday evening. Respectfulness is important. You can agree to disagree, but with thought and respect when offering a different viewpoint. I’m not as concerned about word count as a lot can be said in a few words just as little can be said with many words!

I think the rules can be simple and clean. Timeliness, thoughtful responses and respect for others’ opinions are important.

-Lois


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